The ecological hazard of artificial lighting in greenhouses




This article draws attention to the shortcomings of modern lighting systems used in greenhouses. Its content focuses on the negative effects of mismatches between the photosynthetic needs of plants and the parameters of artificial light sources. Greenhouse lamps designers often do not have the knowledge of biological cultivation dependencies. Therefore, their cooperation with specialists of plant physiology and gardeners is indispensable. This is important because it can affect the consumer quality of vegetables.

Full Text: PDF

  1. M.Kucharczyk, I.Gąsak, Ecological effects of light pollution , III International Conference on Scientific and Technical TRANSEIA, Krynica Zdrój, Poland, 6-8 December 2017. DirectLink
  2. T. H. Goldsmith, What Birds See, Scientific American Inc. (2006), CrossRef
  3. E.J. Gerl, M.R. Morris, The Causes and Consequences of Color Vision, Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, 2008. CrossRef
  4. K. Jaworski, A. Szmidt-Jaworska, J. Kopcewicz, Two calcium dependent protein kinases are differently regulated by light and have different activity patterns during seedling growth in Pharbitis nil, open access at, Journal: 10725, Article: 9609, 2011. CrossRef
  5. K. Jaworski, A. Pawełek, J. Kopcewicz, A. Szmidt-Jaworska, The calcium-dependent protein kinase (PnCDPK1) is involved in Pharbitis nil flowering, Journal of Plant Physiology 169 p. 1578-1585, 2012. CrossRef
  6. A. Szmidt-Jaworska, K. Jaworski, J. Kopcewicz, Effect of light on soluble guanylyl cyclase activity in Pharbitis nil seedlings, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 93 p. 9-15, 2008. CrossRef
  7. Horticulture Lighting Group, Goniophotometer Test Report of the ELITE ECO lamp CrossRef
  8. K. Marra, E. P. LaRochelle, M. S. Chapman, P. J. Hoopes, K. Lukovits, E. V. Maytin, T. Hasan, B. W. Pogue, Comparison of Blue and White Lamp Light with Sunlight for Daylight‐Mediated, 5‐ALA Photodynamic Therapy, in vivo, Wiley Online Library, 16 April 2018 CrossRef
  9. M. Gilewski, The Ecological Harmfulness of RGB LED Light, International Conference on Energy, Power, Electrical and Environmental Engineering : EPEEE 2018, DEStech Publications, Wuhan, Hong Kong, September 27-28, 2018. CrossRef
  10. K. J. McCree, The Action Spectrum, Absorptance and Quantum Yield of Photosynthesis in Crop Plants, Agricultural Meteorology, Elsevier Publishing Company, 9 p. 191-216 , 1972. CrossRef
  11. EconoLux Indastries Ltd., What Light do Plants Need, Hong Kong CrossRef
  12. I. Ashdown, Photometry and Photosynthesis: From Photometry to PPFD, SunTracker Technologies Ltd CrossRef
  13. OSRAM Opto Semiconductors, Horticulture Lighting with LEDs, OS SSL | NR AW CH, November 2016 CrossRef
  14. M. Mottus, M. Sulev, F. Baret, R. Lopez-Lozano, A. Reinart, Photosynthetically Active Radiation: Measurement and Modeling CrossRef
  15. Heliospectra AB, Full Flexibility ELIXIA grow ligh CrossRef
  16. Heliospectra AB, Full Flexibility ELIXIA grow light CrossRef
  17. A. Szmidt-Jaworska1, K. Jaworski1, A. Tretyn, J. Kopcewicz, The involvement of cyclic GMP in the photoperiodic flower induction of Pharbitis nil, J. Plant Physiol. 161. p. 277-284, 2004. CrossRef
  18. A. Szmidt-Jaworska, K. Jaworski, J. Kopcewicz, The Involvement of Cyclic ADPR in Photoperiodic Flower Induction of Pharbitis nil, J Plant Growth Regul 25: p. 233-244, 2006. CrossRef
  19. A. Szmidt-Jaworska, K. Jaworski, A. Zienkiewicz, M. Lenartowska, J. Kopcewicz, Guanylyl cyclase activity during photoperiodic flower induction in Pharbitis nil, Plant Growth Regul 57: p. 173-184, 2009. CrossRef
  20. U.J. Błaszczak, D.A. Aziz, L. Gryko, Influence of the spectral composition of LED lighting system on plants cultivation in a darkroom, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 10445, (2017) 1-9. CrossRef
  21. L. Gryko, U. Blaszczak, A.S. Zajac, Colorimetric characterization of the tunable LED-based light source at the output of the homogenizing rod, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 10808, 2018. CrossRef
  22. I.Fryc, T. Dimitrova-Grekow, An automated system for evaluation of the quality of light sources, 6th IEEE Lighting Conference of the Visegrad Countries : LUMEN V4, Karpacz, September 13-16, 2016. CrossRef
  23. J. Kusznier, M. Zajkowski, L. Budzynski, D. Tyniecki, Ring optical mixer for LED with truncated surfaces, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 10325, 2017. CrossRef
  24. W. Wojtkowski, LED Power Supply with Thermal Protection for Automotive Application, 7th Lighting Conference of the Visegrad Countries : LUMEN V4, Třebíč, September 18-20, 2018. CrossRef
  25. W. Wojtkowski, Constant Frequency Operation of the Parallel Loaded Resonant DC/DC Converter for Power LED Lighting, International Conference on Energy, Power, Electrical and Environmental Engineering : EPEEE 2018, DEStech Publications, Wuhan, Hong Kong, September 27-28, 2018. CrossRef
  26. Pashiardis S, Kalogirou SA and Pelengaris A. Characteristics of Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR) Through Statistical Analysis at Larnaca, Cyprus. SM J Biometrics Biostat. 2(2): 1009, 2017. DirectLink
  27. R. Inger, J. Bennie, T. W. Davies, K. J. Gaston, Potential Biological and Ecological Effects of Flickering Artificial Light, PLoS One, vol. 9(5) (2014) PMC4038456 CrossRef
  28. C. Dong, Y. Fu, G. Liu, H. Liu, "Growth, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity and biomass yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to LED light sources with different spectra combinations", J Agron Crop Sci, vol. 200, p. 219-230, 2014. CrossRef




How to Cite

M. Gilewski, “The ecological hazard of artificial lighting in greenhouses”, Photonics Lett. Pol., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 87–89, Sep. 2019.